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Environmental Impacts of Integrated Photovoltaic Modules in Light Utility Electric Vehicles

  • This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of photovoltaic (PV) solar modules whichhave been integrated into electric vehicle applications, also called vehicle integrated photovoltaics(VIPV). The LCA was executed by means of GaBi LCA software with Ecoinvent v2.2 as a backgrounddatabase, with a focus on the global warming potential (GWP). A light utility electric vehicle (LUV)named StreetScooter Work L, with a PV array of 930 Wp, was analyzed for the location of Cologne,Germany. An operation time of 8 years and an average shadowing factor of 30% were assumed.The functional unit of this LCA is 1 kWh of generated PV electricity on-board, for which an emissionfactor of 0.357 kg CO2-eq/kWh was calculated, whereas the average grid emissions would be 0.435 kgCO2-eq/kWh. Hence, charging by PV power hence causes lower emissions than charging an EV bythe grid. The study further shows how changes in the shadowing factor, operation time, and otheraspects affect vehicle’s emissions. The ecological benefit of charging by PV modules as compared togrid charging is negated when the shadowing factor exceeds 40% and hence exceeds emissions of0.435 kg CO2-eq/kWh. However, if the operation time of a vehicle with integrated PV is prolonged to12 years, emissions of the functional unit go down to 0.221 kg CO2-eq/kWh. It is relevant to point outthat the outcomes of the LCA study strongly depend on the location of use of the vehicle, the annualirradiation, and the carbon footprint of the grid on that location.

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Verfasserangaben:Olga Kanz, Angèle Reinders, Johanna May, Kaining Ding
Titel des übergeordneten Werkes (Englisch):Energies
Jahr der Fertigstellung:2020
Dokumentart:Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Datum des Hochladens:24.02.2021
GND-Schlagwort:Fotovoltaik; Nutzfahrzeug; Umweltbilanz
Freies Schlagwort / Tag:CO<sub>2</sub> emissions; Electric vehicles; Life cycle assessment; Photovoltaic systems; VIPV
Ausgabe / Heft:19
Fakultäten und Zentrale Einrichtungen:Informations-, Medien- und Elektrotechnik (F07) / Fakultät 07 / Institut für Elektrische Energietechnik
Open Access:Open Access
Lizenz (Deutsch):License LogoCreative Commons - CC BY - Namensnennung 4.0 International